THE History of Television 1946

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THE History of Television , as well as the smashing of the atom, must be
explained in a non-technical manner, now that World War I has ended,
so that the public may know the facts. People generally are not interested
in various scientific discoveries except insofar as they concern their daily lives
in peace. In wartime certain censorship and security restrictions were essential
for the public safety, and some precautions must be continued for our own
protection.
The Atom as the -basic power of the universe- and closely associated
with the Electron, the -energy of motion, – as employed in Television and
Radar, will inevitably afect the future of mankind. The public is awaiting a
simple explanation of what to expect, now that the -go ahead – signal of
reconversion has been given, and post-war -al clear- progress proceeds. We
can be devoutly grateful that these advancements were brought to us by the
scientific leadership of the Allies and especially by the industrial strength of
the United States. Nearly al that has been written or spoken in the past
concerning Television is prologue, with an over-abundance of prediction or
guesswork. We have entered a new era in which Atomic power plus Electronic
speed are about to change our way of life. The curtain is “going up- and a
new world appears, brought before our eyes in the home.
Now the story can be told without jeopardizing our safety and serve a
constructive purpose as well, by assisting those who are interested in learning
only the plain facts about Television from an independent viewpoint. This
general survey is intended to explain what the people want to know before
deciding to install a television receiver in the home. However, because of
rapid changes in various locations approved for television stations, and
improvements now taking place, those who wish to receive the latest information
or special advice, may make inquiry by using the letter form appearing
on the last page. An opinion can be given after furnishing the necessary
data. A nominal charge is made to cover in part for the time required and
handling.
If the guidance offered herein can be of service to the public in showing
the way to some of the thousands and millions of people about to embark on
a journey to new vistas through Television, by giving them a plain and understandable
explanation, then its purpose will be accomplished. There has been
intentionally omitted practically al reference to the functional or mechanics
of Television, including studio operation, production of programs, lighting
efects, etc., etc. People are primarily interested only in the results obtained
and offered to them. There has been an abundance of technical television
literature in the past, for those who are interested. Broadcasters must justify
their ability to serve the public in order to have and hold the right to use
our -free air.”
It is hoped that Television, by adding sight to sound will be able to
greatly improve upon the broadcasting of Radio, with new types of educational,
entertainment and news programs, and prove that civilization continues to
progress with each succeeding generation. In this manner it can serve to
Perpetuate the peace among al people.
— W ALTER J. GREENE

TELEVISION TODAY
A Virile Youth Returned From War
The birth of Television is not associated with any
particular date. Many -first- claims are made to
various phases of the development. Back in the year
1600, William Gilbert conceived of the earth as a
great magnet, with magnetic poles and a field of
force about it. He laid the foundation for numerous
later discoveries over nearly three and one-half centuries.
Now, Television has emerged from the
experimental and the pioneer development stages,
strengthened and greatly improved by advances made
during the war. It has been stated by certain inventors
and other authorities, that Television in a few years
of war development gained about as much as could
have been expected in twenty-five years of peacetime
advancement.
In plain terms, Television (or, better, radio sight),
is the result of radio sound waves (audio) as developed
and used in a commercial way for the past
quarter century, being combined with sight (video)
reproductions on a tube or screen like motion pictures,
when synchronized or timed so as to harmonize and
appear together. These two factors are the electronic
basis or foundation of Television. Today the youth
is progressing so rapidly that no one can predict
accurately its possible future development. One must
realize that radio has developed to its present state
since August 20, 1920. On that date the National
Association of Broadcasters (N.A.B.) decided that
commercial station W WJ Detroit was born, and that
station KDKA Pittsburgh was ten and a half weeks
younger. Broadcasting then was mostly stutter and
static and reception was mostly a matter of -cat’s
whiskers- and crystals. The development of Electronics
during the war deserves further mention here
because of its important part in our victory. This was
made possible with the aid of the British in the early
days, when the United States became the -Arsenal
of Democracy. – Since then, tremendous improvements
have been made. Today, the United States
leads the way in progress.
In Television, as in Radar, the picture appearing
on the Cathode Ray tube or Kinescope tube, is the
very heart of the receiving instrument. The television
tube used in the home receiver can be much larger
than in some other uses, and furnish a bigger or
better picture in a console type set. The pictures now
appear in black and k1 [lite and by the direct tube
views are as large as about twenty inches in size and
much larger when projected on a screen or wall.
No matter what its size may be, every television tube
is made to furnish the same standard picture as regulated
by the Federal Communications Commission,
which assures only the highest quality reception. In
pre-war days, the pictures appearing on the tube
were not of the same high standard. As now shown
on the tube, and because of the tremendous speed
of the electrons moving across the surface of the
picture in little black and white dots at the rate of
thirty times every second, the result appears to the
human eye as one steady picture. This may be difficult
to understand, being a newer form of optical
ilusion. Our motion pictures are produced or shown
on the theatre 5( teen at the rate of twenty-four pictures
(frames) every second and appear as one
c(mtinuous picture. They eliminate nearly al of the
eye strain and flicker of the early days. In Television,
ith thirty pictures flashed every second the result
compares lawrably with the finer ilustrations appearing
in the better magazines today. Hundreds of
thousands of little black and white dots make up both
kinds of pictures. If magnified suficiently these dots
can readily be seen, although they are not apparent
to the naked eye. Television pictures have greatly
improved in the last few years and are easily viewed
today, when properly presented.
Now let us take a glance behind the television
picture. Just as a matter of general interest, a healthy
support is shown for the youth, during the growing
years. Some people would like to know who is back
of Television in a big way, until it can become selfsupporting
and established economically on a firm
commercial basis. This may require several years, as
recognized.
The two industries showing a real parental interest
are the movie companies and the radio stations, and
both of these enterprises were born about the same
time in the last generation. Both have a very close
relationship to Television. A large portion of films
are being used regularly in television programs and
should continue to be used in the future for years to
come. There are several obvious reasons of a technical
and economic nature for this situation.

portant interest in television station and studio ownership
is the individual radio station, especially those
connected with local daily newspaper ownership or
control. They evidently realize that Television, with
sight plus sound, can furnish -on the spot- news
besides many other programs of increased public
interest. Furthermore, the Radio networks are anxious
to maintain their position and retain their audience
following through the use of Television. Some are a
bit tardy in formulating plans and obtaining construction
locations, although carefully watching and
awaiting the results obtained by others who show the
way. In addition to the two mentioned outstanding
supporting interests in Television, there are some
leading department stores who never used radio to
any considerable extent showing great interest in
Television for advertising and attracting customers
mostly through intra-store showing.
Regardless of the large capital investment required,
as well as commercial station operating costs, which
are not even estimated here, there were over one
hundred and twenty television station permits requested
of the FCC on V-J Day in August, 1945, and
more than one hundred and fifty applications filed
in Washington before the end of the year. These
requests came from over fifty of our larger cities
located in thirty-one States. There were nine television
stations operating in five cities: New York,
Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Schenectady
during the war, on an experimental or commercial
basis. Only a few thousand receivers of the pre-war
type were functioning throughout the country.
Now, the FCC has isued a list of about one hundred
and forty markets approved for either metropolitan
or community television stations. This list is
furnished as a guide to those residing at or within a
radius of about forty miles of these cities. Of great
importance is knowing more about receiver installation
and where the sets may be expected to perform
satisfactorily when installed. The list of cities follows,
giving Sales Rank and Population according to
the U. S. Census of 1940, as well as the number and
type of stations proposed. The Commission may
make such changes as deemed desirable from time to
time in the public interest, convenience and necessity.
The complete table of the first 140 market areas, approved
for Television Stations, appears on the following page. For
those wishing more information concerning the Commission’s
Rules and Regulations Governing Television Broadcast Stations
address Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing
Ofice, Washington, D. C.

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