මුල් පිටුව බ්ලොග්

How does a TV channel earn money…?


I am in to Advertisement business so I know it precisely….

TV channels earn by running advertisements.

The TV channels have 2 kinds of ratings one is GRP & other is TRP….

GRP stands for Gross Rating Point. A standard measure in advertising, it measures adverising impact. You calculate it as a percent of the target market reached multiplied by the exposure frequency. Thus, if you get advertise to 30% of the target market and give them 4 exposures, you would have 120 GRP.

TRP stands for Television Rating Point, is a tool provided to judge which programmes are viewed the most. This gives us an index of the choice of the people and also the popularity of a particular channel. For calculation purpose, a device is attached to the TV set in a few thousand viewers’ houses for judging purpose.

Now a TV channel has GRP and the TV show has TRP…. Which means if the channel is viewed a lot irrespective to the show running on it, its GRP goes up giving it an opportunity to charge more per second for each ad pllaced on it…

Now when a TV Show is viewed a lot then its TRP goes up, giving the channels to charge more per second for the ads placed in between the show…

Another way of charging the product companies for the air time is whether they place the ad during the prime time ( 8pm – 11pm), or in between a cricket match depending upon how popular the match is, India-Pakistan matches fetch them up to 100000 rupees per second, depending if its a world cup match or a normal series….

So even if the GRP of the channel is low but the TRP of one of the shows is high, they can ask for more money per second for their air time……

I remember when we made ad films we were asked to cut the ads in 45 seconder, 30 seconder, 15 seconder & 10 seconder, the 10 seconder to show when the batsman has hit a sixer and retrieving the ball is gonna take time, 30 seconder if any player gets injured or change of over or batsman….

And it is we consumers who pay for these ads, it is this marketing cost that makes a cola bottle costing 60 paise to manufacture sell for 14 rupees…..

Aalok Singh


Early Television How to Work 1928 ….!!!


Now You Can
If you have not already experienced the thrill of tuningto
pictures, get out the soldering iron, the screwdriver, Me
hook-up wire and build this Television Receiver.
0NE cannot yet press a button
and cause to appear on the.
screen of his television receiver
a view ot a ball ga me. a
yacht race, or a political campaign.
All these things are bound to come
in time, but they are not here yet.
Television as we have it now is
something for the amateur, rather
than the layman who is interested
solely in the image received and not
in the fun of experimenting with a
new science.
The most certain method of
hastening the problems of television
is to have as many experimenters
as possible working on
the problem. Turn television
loose among the amateurs or those
who love scientific experimentation
and watch the important developments
take place, just as in radio
broadcasting.As the receipt of a bit of bldly
distorted phonograph music from
a well-worn record was considered
quite an event, only seven or eight
years ago, equally thrilling now to
the constructor of a home television
receiver is the reception of a
recognizable profile of one of the
technicians of a television broadcast
station in Boston, Schenectady
or Chicago, the silhouette of a
small girl skipping rope and bouncing
a ball in Washington, or a
page from some magazine held up
before the “eye” of a station in
California. While there are several
diferent television systems being
employed at present, they al)
have many points in common, and
an outfit designed to receive images
from one source. may readily be
altered to work from other transmitting
stations.Distant Reception Possible
The receiver described in this
article was designed for receiving
the half-tone broadcasts from station
WLEX of Boston and the
silhouette “movies” from iX K
the Jenkins Laboratories, in Wash-.
ington, D. C. Outfits made to
these specifications have given very
satisfactory results. Station 3XK
is over soo miles from Boston yet
its thrice weekly program was consistently
received throughout
August, even during local thunder
showers and other handicaps. The
same outfit, except for the subst;-
tution of a 24 aperture, 12 inch
diameter disk for the larger 48
aperture disk. was successfully used
at Long Beach. Cal.. last July to
receive the television broadcasts
of station WGY, Schenectady.
These instances show that while ,there are few television stations
on the air in the country at present,
the lack of great numbers
need prove no serious handicap
to the determined experimenter.
There is hardly a location in
which, if there is no local transmitter,
the signals for a distant
television transmitter cannot be
received with suficient intensity to
gi ve satisfactory experimental
For sake of discussion a dotted
outline has been used to divide
the schematic diagram of the complete
receiver into its components
in Figure r They are: Short
Receiver; Audio Frequency Amplifier:
Kino lamp and Scanning
device. While any good radio
frequency receiver capable of being
tuned to the wave length of
the transmitting station may be
used, it has been found that a
receiver employing a stage of untuned
RF using the 222 high amplication
tube is general preferable.
Standard Set Used
The receiver ilustrated is one
we have been using and is a standard
kit set. All of the parts are
available in the open market.
It comprises several rather
unique features. One is the single
tuning control. Another is the
foundation unit design which permits
an eficient layout of parts
with but few connections to be
made by the assembler. As a
result of the 222 tube in the first
stage the sensitivity of the receiver
in general is materially better than
that of the plain regenerative detector
type of set formerly much
in use.
Circuit Non-Radiating
Furthermore, the use of the 222
tube ahead of the essential regenerative
detector prevents radiation
—a problem which would soon become
quite serious if all short
wave receivers were of the radiating
Another important advantage
secured by the use of the 222 tube
in this receiver is the elimination
of tuning “holes,” or dead spots
commonly encountered with plain
regenerator receivers. Heretofore
rather carefully placed shielding
h,c heen considered essential to a
receiver using the 222 tube, but the
use of the untuned antenna circuit
has been found to make shielding
unnecessa ry. Elimination of
shielding not only reduces cost and
simplifies construction work but
also makes it a simple matter to
change coils when going from one
wave band to another.
In constructing any type receiver,
especially for short waves,and more particularly one for television
where a motor and scanning
disc are located in the same room,
considerable attention mu st be
given to rigidity of construction.
This applies to the coils and their
mountings, as well as the wiring
and other parts of the set. The
radio frequency choke coil used in
the detector plate lead is of the
multisection slot wound variety
having very low distributed capacity
over a wide band of frequencies.
The other RF Choke,
or grid circuit impedance is one
especially designed for the purpose
and has an inductance of approximately
2 millihenries.
Audio System Important
The perfection of the picture received
depends upon how good a
signal is transmitted in the first
place and upon how well it is reproduced
at the receiving end.
Here the amplifier used following
the detector plays the important
part. If the signal to be received
contains frequencies of from 18 to
20,000 cycles, then it is important
that the audio amplifier be able
to amplify al frequencies within
these limits. The diagram of the
audio amplifier in Figure i is one
that has a much higher frequency
range than the average, giving picture
reproduction with ample de tail for recognizability of persons.
This amplifier is essentially resistance
coupled. The first tube
is a 240 or 340, high-mu tube. The
second is a 12, and the third a
171. The values of the coupling
resistors, grid leaks and coupling
condensers are marked on the diagram.
The grid leak is replaced
in the case of the 171 by an audio
frequency choke in series with a
radio frequency choke. In the
output circuit two 3-henry, choke
coils are connected in series.
Spring suspended sockets should
preferably be used in building the
amplifier to reduce the possibilities
of microphonic tube noises when
motor and disc are located close
by. An important point to keep
in mind is the necessity for employing
high-grade resistors in the
grid and plate circuits.
Noise does not present the same
limitations in a television receiver
that it does in a broadcast receiver.
Any noise is bothersome
if you must listen to it, but in a
picture it is represented by black
spots and streaks that appear in
a continually shifting position unless
it is a periodic noise. Poor
coupling resistors and vibration
are the two most common sources of noise in the receiving amplifier.
If in an early stage of an amplifier
a plate coupling resistor is
defective it will introduce noise
that is amplified. A pair of ear
phones connected to the output
terminal will reveal this noise.
Some noise is to be expected in a
high gain amplifier but one can
easily judge the amount of noise permissible by tapping the tubes
and comparing the microphonic
noise with the amplifier noise.
In three stages of amplification,
as a rule, the amplifier noise will
not be appreciable. Unless there
is a poor or defective resistor in
one of the plate circuits the amplifier
will be quiet. Vibration from
the receiving disk or its motor,
transmitted to the amplifier or
detector tube, will introduce periodic
noise which will cause a black
streak across the field of the picture.
Other periodic interference
such as sixty cycle hum may get
into the signal and cause streaks
across the picture. These will not
remain stationary but will move
upward or downward across the
field of the picture.
Neon Lamp in Output
The Output Circuit is so arranged
that the neon or Kino-
Lamp is always iluminated. When
a signal is received the brilliancy
of ilumination merely varies in
accordance with the signal. The
construction of the tube is quite
simple. There are two flat metal
plates placed parallel and very
close together. The plates are one
and one-half inches square, and
present an area of two and a
quarter square inches. Either
plate can be used as the anode.
The plates are in a space containing
neon gas, hence the name, neon
tube.When the current through the
tube is changed, due to a change
in impressed voltage, the amount
of light emitted is changed. This
fact is made use of to reproduce
the picture. A resistance must be
connected in series with the tube
because, like all gas conductors, it
has a negative resistance coeficient.
A good picture background will
be obtained if the current through
the neon tube is limited to 10 or
20 milliamperes. More current will
cause the lamp to glow brighter
and brighter, but there is no advantage
in this so far as the picture
is concerned and it only
serves to shorten the life of the
lamp. Accordingly, care should
be taken to adjust the current to
the minimum satisfactory value.
A Clarostat has been found just
right for such use and may be
conveniently mounted on the front
of the frame supporting the scanning
For iluminating the kino lamp
either a standard high grade “B”
eliminator, using a filament type
rectifier tube such as the UX28o,
or heavy duty “B” batteries may
be used. If the back plate glows
instead of the front one when the
lamp is turned on the dificulty
may be corrected by reversing the
leads to the power supply.
Accurate Disk Is Necessary
Several diferent concerns are
manufacturing scanning disks suitable
for use with signals now on
the air. The better grade disks
are well made mechanically, so as
to run true and require little
power. The holes in the disks
must be punched to the necessary
degree of accuracy if the received
image is to be free from black
lines and streaks. A feature of
the National disk is radially
shaped holes, rather than round.
By making the holes this shape the
“lines” across the image are much
less obvious than the use of a
disk with round openings.
Successful results have been obtained
with a number of diferent
types of small motors for driving
the scanning disk, but the one being
used at present is the Baldor Vs
horsepower, YIV variable speed
condenser type, for operation on
Tic) volts (single phase) 6o cycles AC. This is a ball-bearing motor
that operates very smoothly and
quietly. The swish of the disk
through the air, constituting the
major portion of the noise, is quite
insignificant. Special rubber vibration
absorbers are supplied with
the motor for mounting purposes.
The diagram, Fig. 1, shows the
method for speed control. For
the variable resistor “R12,” a 75-
watt, 4 to Ioo ohm wire wound
resistor with sliding contact is
used. The other resistor may be
a 10 ohm io watt resistance.
This is labeled “RI 1” in the diagram
and is shunted by the push
button speed control leads.
Push Button Controls Speed
The resistance “R 2” is so adjusted
that with the push button
released the motor runs at slightly
below proper synchronous speed.
When the push button is depressed
the disk tends to speed up.
Do not mount the television receiver
in the same cabinet with
the disk. Vibrating of the motor
will introduce a synchronous noise
that will result in a series of horizontal
lines being drawn across
the picture. Keep the receiver
and amplifier on a support separate
from that for the disk.
The following convention has
been adopted by the Raytheon
Company in regard to neon tube
mountings. The tube is fitted with
a standard UX base. The plates
inside the tube are placed in a
plane at right angles to the axis
of the “Pin” of the base. If the
pin, therefore, is pointed toward
the disk when inserted in the
socket, the plates inside the tube
will be parallel to the disk. Mount
the tube at the proper height to
cover the inch and a half square
scanned by the revolving disk.
The tube plates are connected to
the “plate” and “filament” prongs
of the base.
Phones Used to Tune in Signal
The first step in the reception of
a television is the locating of the
signal on the receiver dials. This
is best done with the aid of headphones
or a loud speaker connected
in place of the neon lamp.
However, do not fail to have a
fixed condenser of about one microfarad
capacity in series with the phones when connecting it in
place of the neon lamp or across
the neon lamp terminals.
Television signals have a very
distinctive sound but unfortunately
the short waves contain signals
which may easily be mistaken for
television. For instance, the high
speed code and picture transmission
of such stations as WIZ and
W QO are much like a television
signal because of a flutter, or what
may be called a group frequency.
A good wave meter will be of
great help in tuning television
signals. It will prevent mistaking
an automatic code station for the
picture station.
The television experimenter may
be puzzled to find his received
picture either turned upside down
or else reversed, as looking
through a photographic negative
the wrong way. Both of these
faults can be corrected quite easily.
Image May Be Inverted
When an image is upside down
and the correction of this fault is
obvious. The subject before the
transmitter at WLEX is scanned
from top to bottom during one
revolution of the disk. Accordingly,
if you rotate your receiving
disk so that the plate of the neon
lamp is scanned from bottom to
top the picture will be inverted.
To reverse the manner in which
the neon lamp plate is scanned
vertically, it is necessary to reverse
the direction of rotation of the
disk or remove the disk from the
shaft of the driving motor and
turn it around. The latter operation
may involve the removal of
the hub and remounting on the
opposite side of the disk.
The received image may be reversed
horizontally. For example,
one of the objects often placed before
the transmitter is a microphone
stand with the microphone
and the station letters mounted
on it. If you receive this object
erect, but reversed, so that the
letters are backwards your disk is
so rotated that the holes pass the
neon plate in the wrong direction.
• The correction of this fault is
not so obvious. It is plain that
whether you scan the plate from
top to bottom or from bottom to
top makes the diference between one another. Now, without disturbing
the perforated tinfoil, slide
the lens back carefully in its own
plane to its original position. As
this is done and the rays passing
through the various apertures
picked up by the lens, one by one,
the corresponding images on the
screen will fall together in the
most striking way, until, finally,

when the lens comes to its final
position covering all the apertures,
only one central image will be
found on the screen. Now prick
more holes until the whole of the
tinfoil in front of the lens has been
removed. Nothing further happens
except that the single image
becomes brighter and brighter.
This experiment shows us then,

the picture being right side up and
upside down. Similarly, whether
you scan the plate from left to
right or from right to left makes
uhe diference between seeing the
image correctly or reversed.
How can we make the holes
pass the plate in the opposite direction
and still progress from top
to bottom? Reversing the rotation
of the disk alone will turn the
image upside down. You must
also turn the disk around on the
shaft of the motor. Thus, if your
image is right side up but reversed,
you must reverse the direction of
the rotation of the disk and also
remove the disk from the shaft
and turn it around with the other
side out. These factors make several
incorrect combinations and only one correct one, but the incorrect
combinations provide perfectly
recognizable images whose
worst fault is to be upside down.
Should the image obtained be a
negative instead of a positive AC
connections to the Kino lamp. Interchanging
these connections will
correct the trouble.

running just under synchronous
speed to be slightly accelerated by
pressing the button. When the receiver
scanning disc is just in step
the image will appear to stand still
on the screen. A moment longer
of pushbutton depression and the
image moves slowly of the screen that one of the primary functions
of a lens is to allow of the use
of a large aperture with its great
light-collecting power for imaging
purposes. Later we shall find that
this larger aperture is also necessary
for the definition of delail
structure in the image.due to the motor running a little
too fast. By releasing the button
the motor slows down slightly, and
so the image is kept “framed. –
A rheostat of i6o ohms divided
into ten steps, and a separate 25-
ohm resistor shunted by the pushbutton
will be found ideal. The
two resistors are connected in series.
Both should be capable of
carrying the required current without
undue heating. If the motor
is running too slow for the shortcircuited
resistance of the hand
resistor to overcome, move the
adjustable arm on the ten-stop resistor
one step further in advance.
The motor will then speed up
slightly and can be brought
“down” to synchronism, instead
of “up” to a state of perfect step
with the transmitter scanning disc.the drum. Between the lamp and
the periphery of the drum are tiny
quartz rods, each rod ending under
its particular minute aperture
in the drum surface.
Quartz Rods Carry Light
A quartz rod has the peculiar
property that light flows through
it like water flows through a pipe.
The use of quartz rods avoids
light loss. The tiny holes in the
drum are arranged in a plurality
of helical turns like a coarsethreaded
screw. The number of
helices determines the size of the
picture with a given size drum.
Increasing the size of the drum
also increases the size of the picture.
The number of glow-spots
in the lamp correspond to the
number of hole helices in the
drum. The glow-spots in the
lamp are lighted one at a time
by the current from the plate of
the last tube of the amplifier of
the radio set.
The adoption of quartz rods
for conserving the light, and dividing
the neon glow target into
small sections, lighted one at a
time, has enabled us to obtain a
large picture with a relatively
small current. The receiver is not
bulky and its operation is simple.
The motor cord is attached to the
house current and the lamp cord to
the radio set.Simple Device Gets Images
To get the pictures attach a correctly made picture receiver to a
suitable radio set, and tune in the
station broadcasting the pictures.
Surprisingly simple apparatus
can be put together to get the pictures,
namely, a neon lamp, a
scanning disc, and a small motor
to rotate the disc. A 12-inch
scanning disc with 48 scanning
apertures gives splendid definition.
The disc may be made of card board, bakelite, iron or aluminum.
The only real dificulty is getting
the tiny holes correctly laid of in a spiral. A Neon lamp suited to
this 12-inch disc costs one dollar.
Mount the scanning disc in a
bearing so that it turns freely.
Rotate it by any small A. C. induction
or D. C. motor of 1/20th,
1/16th, or 1/18th h.p., mounted
on a board between guide strips
so that it may move to and fro,
parallel to the scanning disc. Cut
from the inner tube of an automobile
tire a disc 2  ,1/2 to 3 inches in
diameter. Put this disc between
2-inch flanges on a hub to go on
the motor shaft. Locate the motor
so that the rubber driving disc
bears against the back of the
scanning disc.
To bring in the picture synchronism
is attained by shifting the
location of the motor with respect
to the disc axis. Support the lamp
behind the top of scanning disc so
that you can look at it through
the flying holes in the whirling
disc, and the picture receiver is
ready. The motor wires are attached
to the house current and
the lamp leads to the output of
your radio set, like a loudspeaker
is attached. A resistance-coupled
audio amplifier set produces the
best and sharpest pictures. The
picture is about the size of a picture
on a movie film, but appears
larger through a reading glass.
Tune in the station, adjust the
position of the motor, and out
flashes a picture in al its mysterious


JACK PEARL 1929 Radio Star


“The Modern Baron Munchausen”-That’s what they call JACK PEARL.( Jack Pearl papers, 1899-1973 )
And, if you’ve: heard his weird tales over that Magic Carpet. progra.m, you
know he deserves the title. And, because; he made it an amusing art instead
of a vice, he gets paid for telling whoppers.
Jack got his first taste of Broadway in the stock room of the Shapiro Publishing
Company. Finally, offered $12.00 a week to appear in d Gus Edwards
chorus containing Walter Winchell, Georgie Jessel, Eddie Cantor, Eddie
Buzzell and the Duncan Sisters, Jack held out for $15.00 and didn’t get it!
Played stock, vaudeville,  the Shuberts signed him as a
Ziegfeld Follies headliner.
Jack is not superstitious. He’s just careful. That’s why he carries untold
lucky pieces, a chunk of wood in every pocket and has personally collected
the world’s l.ugest dnd most vdrie:d collection of strciy needles, h<1irpins,
safety pins and common, ordinary, everyday pins.

The catchphrase “Vas you dere, Charley?” swept the United States in late 1932 due to the brief popularity of radio comedian Jack Pearl. As the character Baron Munchausen, Pearl would tell increasingly fanciful stories of his travels and exploits to his sidekick “Charley” (originally played by Cliff Hall), who at some point would express disbelief. The Baron would then retort using this catchphrase. His popularity quickly faded as the character was perceived as one-dimensional. (Joe Penner would enjoy similar fleeting fame the following year with his solitary catchphrase “Wanna buy a duck?”)

This clip is from the 1933 film “Meet the Baron” and features Ben Bard as “Charley.”

RUTH ETIING Radio Star 1929


RUTH ETIING-was born in David City, Nebraska. After graduating from
her home-town high school she went to Chicago to study fashion design at
the Academy of Fine Arts. ·She still designs and makes most of her own
She got her start by dancing in the chorus of one of the Chicago night-clubs
to help pay her tuition. Later she took to singing. Her singing of one of
the many songs identified with her-“Ten Cents a Dance”-may be considered
partly responsible for the reforms since made in the public dance: halls of Ne:w .
York. Before this, little was known of the plight of the “taxi-dancer.’ Ruth
has appeared in four editions of the “Follies” and with Ed Wynn in “Simple:
Simon.” She sings over the radio, on the stage and screen, and makes bestseller
phonograph records.

It Had To Be You (1936) – Ruth Etting

Television Sight-and-sound broadcasters to send more and brighter 1946 June


Television Sight-and-sound broadcasters
to send more and brighter 1946 June Issue

THIS month television star ts its pos twar
campaign for public acclaim. After years
in the laboratory and months of limited
commercial operation, it is now out to conquer
an audience.
Those who already own television sets
(at a guess, about 10,000 families) will get
at least four hours of sight-and-sound each
week this month. The televising of the
Louis-Conn fight at Yankee Stadium on June
19 will be the stellar event; boxing will
provide some of television’s most compact,
action-filed, suspense-crammed programs.
Next month, unless FCC grants a further
postponement, every commercial station will
have to put at least 28 hours a week of
sports, news, special events and live or
screened shows on the air to hold its license.
Television holds such promise today that
30 feet has been added to the Empire State
Building. The National Broadcasting Company
has doubled the power of Station
VVNBT by perching a new and taller antenna
on top of the world’s tallest building.
This antenna is so designed that it flattens
the signals in the direction of the horizon
instead of letting them squirt upward as
wel as outward, and thereby increases the
reception radius from 60 to 70 miles.
Since its fumbling start during the New
York World’s Fair, television has fallen heir
to a fortune in radar research. When frozen
for the duration, it was standardized on
pictures moving 30 frames per second with
a definition of 525 lines. (This means that
the electron beam in a television pick-up
tube—the “eye” that sees the image—cuts
up each picture into 525 horizontal lines
and scans those lines, moving from left to
right and from top to bottom, in one-thirtieth
of a second.) This is still the standard,
but the quality of television has become
much better.
Out of the war came huge improvements
in the cathode-ray tube, which produces the pictures to bigger audience.
received image. The glass was made with
better optical qualities; its curvature was
lessened, so that when viewed sideways the
image would not be distorted like a reflection
in a Coney Island mirror. The phosphors—
chemicals that blaze into light when
bombarded by electrons—were changed to
double and triple the brightness of the
In a new RCA cathode-ray tube, soon to
be mass-produced, a microscopic film of
aluminum, about four-millionths of an inch
thick, is ingeniously deposited on the inside
of the phosphor coating. The electrons pass
through it, striking the phosphors and converting
the television image into light. But
the light, mirrored by the aluminum film,
cannot go back into the tube. In uncoated
tubes, the light loss inside runs as high as
50 to 60 percent; in the new tube the light
is al projected outward. Increased voltages,
12,000 to 15,000 instead of 7,500, also produce
brighter pictures. Even at these voltages,
however, there is no danger from
shock, because the current is measured in
microamperes—just about what you generate
when you scuf your foot on a thick rug in
a cold room.
In a television picture with more light,
more tones of gray can be crowded in.
Prewar television had a contrast ratio of
about 15 to 1, but soon contrast will be as
good as in the average movie screen (40
to 1)—possibly even better.
You will be able to see television pictures
in roughly three diferent grades, depending
upon the cost of the set. Probably the
most popular grade will be the cheapest
(estimate: $150 to $250), which will feature
small cathode-ray tubes, say five or
seven inches in diameter, and produce
pictures 3 by 4 or 4% by 6. Sets in the next
price bracket will have cathode-ray tubes
up to 12 or 15 inches across. In the highest
price range you will see pictures on 20-inch
tubes, and projected television in which an
intensely bright high-voltage tube sends its image through lenses onto a ground glass
the size of a home movie screen.
Persons accustomed to good radio reception
with skimpy antennas will have to be
re-educated for television; good antennas
will be needed regardless of the quality of
sets. The weakness of signals 40 to 60 miles
from the stations wil necessitate good antennas
in suburban areas; and in cities,
where signals are stronger, good antennas
will be needed to get clear pictures free
from ghosts—those troublesome multipath
images that make a television screen look
like a double exposure. Ghosts, created by
reflected signals, are annoying—especially
when they make an otherwise nice-looking
actress appear to have four arms, two
mouths, and several extra eyes and ears—
but we must be grateful to them, even so,
for they are the basis of radar.
Sight-and-sound has been assigned channels
in the short-wave band from 44 to 218
megacycles. The shorter the radio wave,
the more like light it behaves. Television
waves can be aimed by transmitting antennas very much as light waves are aimed
by searchlights. And they can be reflected
by buildings; trees and even airplanes. In
general, radio waves begin to be capable
of reflection when they are smaller than
objects in their path. That is why the
waves used in sound broadcasting do not
bounce and ricochet—for they are far larger
than almost anything they encounter.
Antennas for the public will most likely
be dipoles—tall vertical standards with two
horizontal pick-up rods measuring about
nine feet across. The dipole should be installed
at right angles to the line of transmission,
so that the spread of the antenna
is broadside to the television station. It
should be carefully rotated to find the exact
azimuthal setting that produces ghost-free
reception. There may be several such settings—
and there may be none. In the latter
case, the set owner is out of luck, for at the present state of television development
a rotating antenna is the only means of
eliminating ghosts. The lead-in from the
aerial to the set is also important. It will
probably be a matched or twisted pair of
wires specially designed to keep down loss
of the signal. The trick in television lead-ins
is to have the two wires a certain distance
apart and to keep them always at that distance
lest the signal vanish.
The broadcasters are also having their
troubles. Most cameras and transmitter rigs
now in use need rebuilding or total replacement.
New equipment has been held up
by the slow pace of reconversion. Studios
need enlargement, but building materials
are scarce. Broadcasters may not get them
at al, because of a recent government order
curtailing commercial construction in favor
of the veterans’ housing program.
Since television can be received only in line-of-sight transmission, approximately as
far as the horizon, rural dwelers will not
be able to gather around a ‘scope for an
evening’s entertainment until networks are
established. Because television wave-lengths
are too short to be carried on the usual
telephone circuits that handle sound broadcasting,
television will have to be carried
from station to station either by coaxial cable
or radio relay links. A national network is
planned, to be built within the next five
years, using a combination of both methods
Economic and technical details of proposals
to use airplanes flying at high altitudes as
television sources, covering wide segments
of the country, must yet be tested. For the
time being, television will be confined to the
big cities, chiefly those on the east coast.
A typical station operating 28 hours a
week will probably ofer 12 hours of “mobile”
shows (news, special events, sports,
etc.), 10 hours of “live” entertainment
(plays, short spots, skits, song-and-dance
acts, news comment with maps, and similar
stunts) and six hours of movies. Unfortunately,
the movies, which ofer the best
possibilities for elegance, are likely to be old stuf unless the big movie companies,
forever fearful of the efects of television on
their big-money industry, bury the hatchet
with television and furnish new films.
By fall, broadcasters will be able to use
one of the most important inventions in electronic
science: the new Image Orthicon
camera tube (see accompanying drawitigs)
developed by Drs. Albert Rose, Paul K.
Weimer, and Harold B. Law, of RCA. It
is 100 times more sensitive to light than
prewar pick-up tubes.
Three of the five cameras that will cover
the Louis-Conn fight this month will use
the Image Orthicon. Two cameras will be
mounted on a special platform, two in the
NBC television box on the stadium’s mezzanine,
between first base and home plate,
and the fifth beside the ring. Signals will
be carried by wire to an ultra-high-frequency
radio relay link, beamed from there to a
receiving antenna on the RCA Building,
fed through NBC’s master control board for
television, mid finally carried by coaxial
cable to the Empire State Building for
Bright lights produce intense heat, and
it is no joke to be working near them on
a cramped television stage. Such lights will
not be needed when the Image Orthicon
is in mass production, but until then studios
will have to rely on several wrinkles to keep
their actors cool. Sheets of special glass
will absorb 87 percent of the heat and pass
93 percent of the light. A mercury vapor
lamp rated at three kilowatts is said to be
as cool at four feet as an ordinary desk
lamp. Studio brightness eventually will decrease
from several hundred foot-lamberts
to around 50. For mobile broadcast, the
Image Orthicon does away with bulky equipment
and vastly broadens television’s scope.
It will be able to take almost any kind of
spot-news event, regardless of the kind of light in which it occurs. When turret lenses
are also available for television cameras,
quick switching from long shot to close-up
will be possible; and breaks in the show,
such as occurred at the U.N. broadcasts,
will no longer be necessary.
No one knows how many sets will be in
use by the end of the year, and no one can
tell how many television stations will be
operating. One big manufacturer who hoped
to build 4,000,000 radios and 60,000 television
sets has been forced to cut his estimates
in half. It’s anybody’s guess if 50,000
or 200,000 television sets will be made this
year, although everyone seems certain that
in 1947 around a quarter of a million sightand-
sound receivers will be on the market.
The black-and-white versus color controversy
has clouded the broadcasting picture.
NBC, backed by RCA, has locked horns
with CBS over this isue. CBS, intensely
proud of the accomplishments of its research
engineer, Dr. Peter C. Goldmark, takes the
position that al television should be standardized
on the basis of its system. This would mean scrapping the black-and-white
developments, moving television from its
present band in the spectrum to a higher
frequency, and re-engineering everything
now ready for commercial use. If the industry
would cooperate, says CBS, there is
no reason why commercial color should not
be a reality by next year.
NBC and RCA, as well as others who
have lavished both time and money on television
since it was merely a dream of the
laboratory men, resent Columbia’s insistence
on the virtues of its system. They want a
return on their investment and believe that
the public should be alowed to see blackand-
white shows now, no matter how bright
the promises are for color next year. They
argue that color television still needs years
of basic research before it becomes commercially
All wrapped up in the color fight are the
intense personalities and the misty economics
of the radio industry. In the opinion of the
best minds in radio, the injection of the
color isue at this time is certain to have












a deterrent efect on the development of
black-and-white. Already some 30 applicants
for licenses to operate television stations
have withdrawn their petitions from
FCC. This would indicate that some of the
men who want to invest from $400,000 to
$1,000,000 in television would rather wait
and see what happens.
But more important than the immediate
controversy is the ultimate decision on where
television should be placed in the radio
spectrum. CBS, working on its color experiments
in the region of 480 megacycles,
believes that al television should be in that
band. Others believe that an eventual move
into that region or higher is inevitable—
because there is more room there for individual
broadcasters. The higher the frequency, the broader the transmission band
can be; in the present television band from
44 to 216 megacycles the air is already so
crowded that only six-megacycle channels
are available. In the higher reaches, a 16-
megacycle channel can be used. The width
of the channel is extremely important; if
standards are ever to be raised, in the direction
of more picture frames per second and
more lines of scansion, the channels will





have to be wider. Obviously a faster transmission
rate and a picture scanned with
more lines produce more “information” in
the television image, and bring to the viewer
a picture of greater detail and exactness.
It is quite likely that even before color is
oficially sanctioned for commercial operation,
television will move up into the UHF
(ultra-high-frequency) region or higher.
This summer FCC will hold hearings on
a CBS petition to license color television
commercially. Television is bound to move
up some day. Today’s band, where you
can see National’s WNBT at 66-72 on your
dial; Columbia’s WCB W (for black-andwhite)
at 54 to 60, and DuMont’s WABD
at 76 to 82, is simply a halfway house for
the art. But it is a halfway house that
promises a good period of occupancy. Regardless
of the speeches and the fighting,
commercial operation has begun. It will
not be obsoleted any more than standardband
broadcasting was obsoleted by frequency

THE History of Television 1946


THE History of Television , as well as the smashing of the atom, must be
explained in a non-technical manner, now that World War I has ended,
so that the public may know the facts. People generally are not interested
in various scientific discoveries except insofar as they concern their daily lives
in peace. In wartime certain censorship and security restrictions were essential
for the public safety, and some precautions must be continued for our own
The Atom as the -basic power of the universe- and closely associated
with the Electron, the -energy of motion, – as employed in Television and
Radar, will inevitably afect the future of mankind. The public is awaiting a
simple explanation of what to expect, now that the -go ahead – signal of
reconversion has been given, and post-war -al clear- progress proceeds. We
can be devoutly grateful that these advancements were brought to us by the
scientific leadership of the Allies and especially by the industrial strength of
the United States. Nearly al that has been written or spoken in the past
concerning Television is prologue, with an over-abundance of prediction or
guesswork. We have entered a new era in which Atomic power plus Electronic
speed are about to change our way of life. The curtain is “going up- and a
new world appears, brought before our eyes in the home.
Now the story can be told without jeopardizing our safety and serve a
constructive purpose as well, by assisting those who are interested in learning
only the plain facts about Television from an independent viewpoint. This
general survey is intended to explain what the people want to know before
deciding to install a television receiver in the home. However, because of
rapid changes in various locations approved for television stations, and
improvements now taking place, those who wish to receive the latest information
or special advice, may make inquiry by using the letter form appearing
on the last page. An opinion can be given after furnishing the necessary
data. A nominal charge is made to cover in part for the time required and
If the guidance offered herein can be of service to the public in showing
the way to some of the thousands and millions of people about to embark on
a journey to new vistas through Television, by giving them a plain and understandable
explanation, then its purpose will be accomplished. There has been
intentionally omitted practically al reference to the functional or mechanics
of Television, including studio operation, production of programs, lighting
efects, etc., etc. People are primarily interested only in the results obtained
and offered to them. There has been an abundance of technical television
literature in the past, for those who are interested. Broadcasters must justify
their ability to serve the public in order to have and hold the right to use
our -free air.”
It is hoped that Television, by adding sight to sound will be able to
greatly improve upon the broadcasting of Radio, with new types of educational,
entertainment and news programs, and prove that civilization continues to
progress with each succeeding generation. In this manner it can serve to
Perpetuate the peace among al people.

A Virile Youth Returned From War
The birth of Television is not associated with any
particular date. Many -first- claims are made to
various phases of the development. Back in the year
1600, William Gilbert conceived of the earth as a
great magnet, with magnetic poles and a field of
force about it. He laid the foundation for numerous
later discoveries over nearly three and one-half centuries.
Now, Television has emerged from the
experimental and the pioneer development stages,
strengthened and greatly improved by advances made
during the war. It has been stated by certain inventors
and other authorities, that Television in a few years
of war development gained about as much as could
have been expected in twenty-five years of peacetime
In plain terms, Television (or, better, radio sight),
is the result of radio sound waves (audio) as developed
and used in a commercial way for the past
quarter century, being combined with sight (video)
reproductions on a tube or screen like motion pictures,
when synchronized or timed so as to harmonize and
appear together. These two factors are the electronic
basis or foundation of Television. Today the youth
is progressing so rapidly that no one can predict
accurately its possible future development. One must
realize that radio has developed to its present state
since August 20, 1920. On that date the National
Association of Broadcasters (N.A.B.) decided that
commercial station W WJ Detroit was born, and that
station KDKA Pittsburgh was ten and a half weeks
younger. Broadcasting then was mostly stutter and
static and reception was mostly a matter of -cat’s
whiskers- and crystals. The development of Electronics
during the war deserves further mention here
because of its important part in our victory. This was
made possible with the aid of the British in the early
days, when the United States became the -Arsenal
of Democracy. – Since then, tremendous improvements
have been made. Today, the United States
leads the way in progress.
In Television, as in Radar, the picture appearing
on the Cathode Ray tube or Kinescope tube, is the
very heart of the receiving instrument. The television
tube used in the home receiver can be much larger
than in some other uses, and furnish a bigger or
better picture in a console type set. The pictures now
appear in black and k1 [lite and by the direct tube
views are as large as about twenty inches in size and
much larger when projected on a screen or wall.
No matter what its size may be, every television tube
is made to furnish the same standard picture as regulated
by the Federal Communications Commission,
which assures only the highest quality reception. In
pre-war days, the pictures appearing on the tube
were not of the same high standard. As now shown
on the tube, and because of the tremendous speed
of the electrons moving across the surface of the
picture in little black and white dots at the rate of
thirty times every second, the result appears to the
human eye as one steady picture. This may be difficult
to understand, being a newer form of optical
ilusion. Our motion pictures are produced or shown
on the theatre 5( teen at the rate of twenty-four pictures
(frames) every second and appear as one
c(mtinuous picture. They eliminate nearly al of the
eye strain and flicker of the early days. In Television,
ith thirty pictures flashed every second the result
compares lawrably with the finer ilustrations appearing
in the better magazines today. Hundreds of
thousands of little black and white dots make up both
kinds of pictures. If magnified suficiently these dots
can readily be seen, although they are not apparent
to the naked eye. Television pictures have greatly
improved in the last few years and are easily viewed
today, when properly presented.
Now let us take a glance behind the television
picture. Just as a matter of general interest, a healthy
support is shown for the youth, during the growing
years. Some people would like to know who is back
of Television in a big way, until it can become selfsupporting
and established economically on a firm
commercial basis. This may require several years, as
The two industries showing a real parental interest
are the movie companies and the radio stations, and
both of these enterprises were born about the same
time in the last generation. Both have a very close
relationship to Television. A large portion of films
are being used regularly in television programs and
should continue to be used in the future for years to
come. There are several obvious reasons of a technical
and economic nature for this situation.

portant interest in television station and studio ownership
is the individual radio station, especially those
connected with local daily newspaper ownership or
control. They evidently realize that Television, with
sight plus sound, can furnish -on the spot- news
besides many other programs of increased public
interest. Furthermore, the Radio networks are anxious
to maintain their position and retain their audience
following through the use of Television. Some are a
bit tardy in formulating plans and obtaining construction
locations, although carefully watching and
awaiting the results obtained by others who show the
way. In addition to the two mentioned outstanding
supporting interests in Television, there are some
leading department stores who never used radio to
any considerable extent showing great interest in
Television for advertising and attracting customers
mostly through intra-store showing.
Regardless of the large capital investment required,
as well as commercial station operating costs, which
are not even estimated here, there were over one
hundred and twenty television station permits requested
of the FCC on V-J Day in August, 1945, and
more than one hundred and fifty applications filed
in Washington before the end of the year. These
requests came from over fifty of our larger cities
located in thirty-one States. There were nine television
stations operating in five cities: New York,
Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Schenectady
during the war, on an experimental or commercial
basis. Only a few thousand receivers of the pre-war
type were functioning throughout the country.
Now, the FCC has isued a list of about one hundred
and forty markets approved for either metropolitan
or community television stations. This list is
furnished as a guide to those residing at or within a
radius of about forty miles of these cities. Of great
importance is knowing more about receiver installation
and where the sets may be expected to perform
satisfactorily when installed. The list of cities follows,
giving Sales Rank and Population according to
the U. S. Census of 1940, as well as the number and
type of stations proposed. The Commission may
make such changes as deemed desirable from time to
time in the public interest, convenience and necessity.
The complete table of the first 140 market areas, approved
for Television Stations, appears on the following page. For
those wishing more information concerning the Commission’s
Rules and Regulations Governing Television Broadcast Stations
address Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing
Ofice, Washington, D. C.

Single Side Band TELEVISION TRANSMISSION July- August, 1932


More Image Detail With Lower Frequency Range Possible With This Method


STATION W6XAH, Bakersfield, California, is the first station in the West to use single sideband suppressed carrier transmission.This system permits the transmission of more detail and of course a better picture within the limitations of the frequency channel allocated by the Federal
Radio Commission, which is 100 kilocycles at this time.W6XAH is licensed to transmit 96 lines, 20 picture frames per second, (1200 R.P.M.) and scans left to right and top to bottom in continuous sequence. (R.M. A. Standard.) It was quite interesting, during the development work, to note the amount of increased detail which was available between the 60 line picture and the one using 96 lines, both pictures being transmitted at 20 picture frames per second.
In the 60 line picture, small objects were not seen at all! In the 96 line picture even the shading under trees was easily seen, as well as the details of the facial features of individuals.

Halving the Frequency It is also possible when using the ninety-six line picture, in the transmission of moving picture film, to use practically any kind of film, the darkest type corning through with good fidelity.If one attempted to transmit 96 lines without the use of single sideband transmission the channel width would be more than 184 kilocycles, which, of course, is out of the question. Its advantages are many compared to other methods of
transmission, and will be shown in a latter part of this article. By the use of the increased detail obtained by 96 lines, it is possible to take outdoor scenes of tennis games, boxing matches, etc. In the studio the scenes televised show the artist and the furnishings
of the room, windows and other details which go to increase the atmosphere for a stage setting. The transmitter is housed in a building consisting of two rooms, each 24 feet wide and 48 feet long. One room houses the main transmitter and the power control panels, and also the speech input panels and monitors. The main transmitter faces the front. Along the left side of the main transmitter is seen the single sideband equipment, which is housed in a separate screened -in panel.On the right side of the room are the generator control panels, consisting of 3 panels.In the rear of the room on the right side are two banks of power transformers (each 15 kilowatts), supplying the power for the rectifiers. Both generators
and rectifiers are used to supply the power in transmission. The filaments are operated by a direct current generator. On the left of the room is shown the speech input panel, the sideband panel being shown at the right. In the room adjoining are the main television ampLfier, the projection machines,and the pre -amplifiers, the picture which is transmitted actually going through 17 stages of amplification. Complete Laboratory Equipment
Great care in building these amplifiers was necessary, as the frequencies involved vary over a wide range. The main amplifier, having eight stages of specially designed amplification, has a
frequency range from 30 to 95,000 cycles. Its characteristics are practically flat from 50 to 80,000 cycles. In this room also is the machine shop, which is well equipped for this type of
research. It also contains the usual testing equipment, oscillographs, low -frequency
oscillators, frequency measuring apparatus, etc.The studio building is located approximately
50 feet from the first building.It contains the direct pick -up cameras and associated amplifiers, two condenser microphones, piano, studio furniture, etc. An underground line connects the studio with the transmitter rooms. The two towers are each 150 foot in
height, and were made of wood to keep down absorption and re- radiation. They are separated 150 feet. The antenna itself is a large single wire, fed by a transmission line.
Lower Power Consumption Even disregarding the previously mentioned advantages possessed by the single sideband system, that there is less interference due to the sharper tuning permissible in the receiver and that the received signal strength is subject to less
variation due to changes in the ether conditions, this system has the advantage
of lower power consumption for given results. The maximum power required is one -fourth of that for the usual transmitter. It is important to remember that the power output of a single sideband transmitter is zero when no speech or picture is transmitted and that the output varies from zero to full load each time a word is spoken. This is one of the reasons for the large size of our power supplying ap- paratus and generators.It is quite interesting to note the different me ‘,nods employed in the production of the single sideband.It is well known that, when alternating carrier current is modulated by voice or picture currents, the resultant wave is distributed over a frequency range which may be considered in three
parts: (1) The carrier frequency itself, (2) a frequency band extending from the
carrier upward, and having a width  equal to that of the frequencies appearing in the modulation wave, and (3) a band extending from the carrier downward, and having a similar width. The products of modulation are spread over a region comprising the original carrier
frequency and the two bands, known as the upper and lower sidebands. These two bands have the same width and each transmits power which contains all the elements necessary to reproduce the original speech or picture transmitted. The ordinary transmitter transmits all of the products of modulation (carrier and two side bands). It also sends out the carrier continuously and adds the two side -bands when they are impressed, as when a word is spoken. The total transmission or frequency range is from the peak of one side band to the peak of the other or from top to bottom. In the single sideband, eliminated carrier method of transmission, no power is radiated except when a word is spoken into the microphone, or a picture applied. A combination of modulators and filters is applied to eliminate the carrier and the upper side band in the case of W6XAH. The width of the sideband transmitted is slightly less than one -half of that which is transmitted in the usual transmitter. In the case of
W6XAH this half is made twice its normal size or equal to 92 kilocycles, in the transmission of 96 lines, 20 picture frames per second. The entire apparatus was designed and built by Mr. Frank Schamblin, president of the Pioneer Mercantile Company, and the writer.
New Scanning Methods A new and revolutionary method of scanning is now being developed in which the scanning disc is entirely eliminated, together with the photo -electric cell and
all light. On its test programs W6XAH has been reported from practically the entire United States. It is the largest visual station west of Chicago.The reader understands, of course, that special sets must be employed for the reception of television signals transmitted by the single side band system. Data on this subject will be published in forthcoming numbers of TELEVISION NEWS.



HUGO GERNSBACK  Television News was another specialty title from Hugo Gernsback, focused on the new television technology.
It was merged with Radio News in 1933. Prior to Television News, Gernsback published a few issues of Television in 1928, but his financial problems and the depression ended that original title almost immediately.This Article extract From JULY -AUGUS 1932 Television News Magazine.

CUSTOM -BUILT PROTECTION TV Is Still Profitable 1950


Vice -Pres., Electronics Research…
Is projection the TV of the future? To dale it is
the only Way to obtain a truly large- sized picture.
AMERICA is the land of competition.In the battle of survival of the fittest, woe to the fit or only more fit. This is as true in television
as it was in the case of evolution.Unfortunately, in the practice of many people the “good” becomes the enemy of the “best,” for they seem to say, “Since what we have now is good enough, let’s stay with it and let the better come along and make its own way in the world.”That attitude may be all right for
the average customer, but it is not all right for the enterprising service technician who wants to be in business tomorrow as well as today. He must learn to read the handwriting on the wall without being too critical of the typography. If one interprets the handwriting correctly, it seems that the only logical answer to the
problem of securing truly large -sized pictures is with projection units and that the next boom in television will be in this field. Sure, there are many who will protest that projection has made its appearance and did not “go over.” This is true only to a certain extent. Prices asked for the early projection units were high- ranging as they did from $650.00 up. This economic factor naturally limited the sale of these sets to a relatively small group of consumers. Like all television
receiver prices the price -tags on projection sets have been lowered to the point where the average- income family is now a potential customer.The trend today is obviously toward larger and larger pictures. The seven inch sets, so popular a year or so ago, are now obsolete. The time is coming when today’s ten and twelve inch receivers will have to make way for the newer sixteen and nineteen inch units. In fact the trend is so definitely in the direction of large pictures that one
well -known manufacturer is working on a thirty -inch cathoderay television tube.It’s a funny thing, but the company that made the very earliest cathoderay tubes and controls the basic patents, has been content recently to license other manufacturers to make the direct view tubes under their patents. They are concentrating on projection tubes entirely. If you think they are making a mistake, stick to direct view; but if you suspect they may be right, begin to think about
projection. Most technicians specialize. The author’s field is custom installations and we do about two or three a month, the year around. Actually it makes little
difference whether a client or prospect wants a direct view, RCA projection, or the Norelco Proteigram. We are in business to serve our customers. But at the same time we have the responsibility of providing the very best possible television service at prices our customers can afford. Therefore it pays us to look into the
new developments in the field and to offer the best of these to our discriminating clients. We have installed RCA direct view and projection, GE direct view and
projection, Du Mont, etc., and plans are now under way to use a number of the Norelco Proteigram units. There must be reasons. Figs. 2 and 3 show the fundamentals of the optical principle employed by RCA and the North American Philips Company. Custom building is expensive and presents many specialized and difficult problems. A custom installation is not flexible, for once it is installed there it remains. Thus, great care and much thought must be given to the placement
of the viewing screen. Custom – minded customers and prospects must like an installation, because the best possible advertisement comes from
satisfied customers who are proud of their installation and say so to their friends and guests. Formerly, one of the special problems involved in installation of a projection unit was the great amount of space taken up by the projection components alone. Heretofore, this has required 50 inches of straight line space and about 16 inches of diameter. A study of the required dimensions, shown in Fig. 2, clearly indicates this.
Then the supporting frame for the projection apparatus was bulky. In many instances it was difficult to find suitable depth to house such a unit.
The advent of Protelgram has been hailed by custom -installation technicians because outside of the standard chassis, which may be of the typical 630TS type, a minimum of space is necessary to install the two small additional components required for projection. Most of the basic units needed to operate the projection components are supplied by the 630TS chassis.
A few minor circuit changes which may be readily performed by the average service technician will convert such
a chassis to operate as an excellent projection unit. In fact, the changes are so simple that we have rigged up a small portable assembly for demonstration purposes. This assembly contains a viewing screen, the optical box, and the high voltage unit, the basic parts necessary for this projection system. In addition, a separate power supply and a picture tube protection circuit have been incorporated. A schematic of this circuit is shown in Fig. 4. Another circuit for the production of the necessary video output voltage has also been included for use with such receivers as do not have the required 90 volts peak -to -peak to insure adequate modulation of the high cut -off tubes. This is not generally necessary as any standard 630TS chassis that can drive a 10BP4 or the 12LP4 has sufficient
output and power supply to drive the projection unit. However, since the demonstration unit might be called upon to perform “miracles,” all the necessary circuits to meet any demand presented by any television receiver in the field have been included. The special video output circuit is detailed in Fig. 6. This circuit is typical of that required and has adequate bandwidth for good definition. Be sure that the receiver to be adapted for projection work has an i.f. system capable of passing the full 4.5 mc. band if good results are to be obtained. A receiver with a too narrow bandwidth will not give a sufficiently detailed picture. The actual video circuit changes needed will depend on the particular receiver. In many cases, the only changes necessary are the increase of the video bandpass. Choice of the
proper inductances and capacities will accomplish this in most cases. The values specified in Fig. 6 will serve as a guide in converting present amplifiers
if a complete new video section is not contemplated. This little gadget has been worth its cost many times over. Although it was originally designed to demonstrate the desirable features of the large pictures that are possible with only a few additions to an existing receiver, its use has grown and expanded. There is a minimum number of leads, usually five to seven, depending on the chassis being used, that must be connected to various points on the television chassis. All that is necessary is to expose the under side of the chassis and make connections with alligator clips, turn on the power, and the set is in operation. For safety’s
sake use alligator clips covered with rubber sleeves so that there is no possible danger of accidental short circuiting which could be dangerous and expensive. Use only clips that have positive grip which means high quality clips with powerful springs. You don’t want one of these clips to become dislodged, nor do you want a poor contact. The teeth should bite into the solder when the clips are attached. The frame is made of aluminum so as to be light in weight, neat in appearance,
and easy to fabricate.
The over -all dimensions are governed by the size of the screen. Since the screen used is 12×16 inches, the over -all dimensions
are 14x18x40 inches. A demonstration of this device excites much interest in the mind of a prospect for he can see the precise kind of picture he could have. At the
same time he can see the layout of the component parts and visualize how much space is required for a unitof this type.
This cuts down unnecessary questioning about the availability of placement space for the unit. He can see immediately just how much room must be provided for the installation. One important factor. In this gadget the beam is thrown directly on the viewing screen from the corrector lens. There is no intermediary mirror for folding the beam because a mirror introduces a slight loss of light and reduces the over -all optical efficiency somewhat. Plans are under way to build another unit with a folded beam, using a plane surface mirror because this is a fairly common type of installation. A further possibility has developed from the use of this type unit. Television can and should be built into new homes. Architects should be encouraged to think in terms of built -in projection television so that it will be
possible to have 40 inches over -all straightline distance for this purpose. In some instances it is possible to take an architectural sketch and work in an ideal television setup.
In many cases it is possible to conceal the optical projection box in a cabinet behind the walls. Another possibility is to build the television unit into the
utility room with a straight line 40 inch throw distance or it can be built into a closet on the other side of the living room wall. In this latter instance it would be necessary to use a plane surface mirror to fold the beam. The 40 inches required represent the total length from the bottom of the projection unit housing to the screen itself. The housing measures approximately 9 inches in height while the beam requires a throw of 31 inches. Such built -in projection gives the average family television at its best. When it is built into the structure there is a minimum cost for the installation because all the costs are concentrated on the installation per set. It is not necessary to tear down a partition, cut a hole in a wall, build up a bookcase, or provide some brica- brac shelves to make the television installation less conspicuous. Such extra building involves a cabinet maker, and, while it is the only type of construction possible in existing
structures, it is quite expensive. In a new installation there is no extra carpentry, plastering, or painting directly chargeable to the television receiver
because all of these become part of the final structure. Further, the work is done under the supervision of the architect or builder.
Now, for one of the main uses of this demonstration unit and the reason for which it was originally designed and built. Nobody wants to scrap an existing television receiver. With this Norelco Protelgram nobody has to. Take the case in point. A friend of the author had a fairly good direct view set using the 10BP4 tube and the standard 630TS chassis. The receiver was installed in his living room. Just beneath the living room was a large “whoopee” room in the cellar.
This direct view chassis was modified slightly and tied to the projection unit which was placed in the cellar. By utilizing the space between the
beams there was plenty of room to locate the optical box and the high voltage power supply. With straight line throw and no intervening mirror required to bend the beam, he was getting the best possible 16×12 inch projection picture. He still has his 10 inch direct view receiver, but by the flick of a switch he can turn off the voltage to the direct view tube and direct it to the projection unit for large picture projection in his “whoopee” room.
This is classed as a “dual system.”
It is possible to have a 10 or 12 inch direct view and switch over to the large size picture should the situation warrant. There may be times when a small family group would rather use the direct view tube or there may be other times when the projection picture would be preferable. With a conversion job like this both types of reception are possible. Then, if a tube goes in the middle of a good program, simply switch to the built -in “ace in the hole.” There is another excellent reason
why this dual system offers possibilities for the service technician or engineer. A television installation in a bar is an investment and the picture should be as good as possible. With a dual unit, involving both direct view and projection,
it is possible for the bartender to tune the program in at its best and then switch over to projection. All the controls are accessible to him without leaving his post. In a large bar, say 50 or 60 feet long, it ‘might be possible and desirable to
have two projector units, one at each end of the room. Both could be controlled by a single master tuner with some modifications; and nobody would be outside of the optimum viewing range. This “slave” system could be applied to a club which might find it desirable to have projection in various clubrooms for a hotel which wants to provide multiple installations in the better class rooms, or for a school which wants high quality television in a number of key locations, all to be operated from a master tuner. There are still other interesting features possible with the Protelgram system. It makes large scale projection possible with a quality of resolution, definition, brightness, and clarity that make a living room a telemovie center.
This latest television innovation has been incorporated in the Ansley unit shown in Fig. 1. This type of projection is television at its finest. The cabinet projector throws a 3×4 foot picture through a lens in the front of a “coffee table.” The controls are revealed by moving the top of the cabinet
forward about 6 inches. One of the advantages of this type of unit is that the television receiver is an unobtrusive piece of furniture because the cabinet by the side of the upholstered chair closely resembles a cabinet type coffee table. Probably the ultimate in simplicity and appeal in the use of Protelgram
is in a unit made by Avery Fisher, president of the Fisher Radio Company of New York City. He has gone into projection in a big way and has had tuner and sweep components designed and manufactured to fit into the unused space of the projection receiver. As a result, he has been able to produce a table model with over -all
dimensions of 253/a” long, 21″ deep, and 14″ high. The top lifts up to reveal a viewing screen.
The simplicity of the unit is manifest in the three controls, one for tuning in the various channels, another for brightness, and a third for vertical or horizontal focusing. Because the cost of the optical box and the high voltage unit is moderate, it is entirely possible that soon television receivers incorporating the Protelgram feature will be available at prices comparable to those now asked for 16 inch direct view receivers. Obviously you will get the best out of projection if you design “a special chassis to provide just the right output required for the optimum operation of the system. In their haste to cash in on something good, too many manufacturers have simply added Protelgram to existing cabinets and chassis. The waste of space and undesirable cable lead length which results have proven costly. By redesigning the tuner chassis, sweep chassis, and power supply to fill in all the space surrounding the optical box, it is possible to produce a compact unit. Some manufacturers are alert to the importance . of this new kind of television and have designed special circuits to feed the 3NP4 projection type kinescope. The service technician
who knows his circuits will readily appreciate the fact that there are no particular changes from standard design for television circuits. This circuit
represents straightforward television engineering up to the point of feeding the picture into the Protelgram system. In the Scott circuit recognition was given to the fact that the electrical focus of the Protelgram system changes the signal strength with brightness or contrast more sharply than with direct view receivers, and a focus control has been provided on front panel. This control might have been eliminated by controlling the maximum end of the brightness control
by introducing a screwdriver – actuated or service control, which would limit the amount of brightness available to a point at which the focus control need not be shifted. The Scott circuit also provides the proper input d.c. voltage to the Philips 25 kc. high voltage unit. A 6SN7 tube is used as a protection tube to
cut off the high voltage to the 3NP4 in the event of failure in the sweep circuits. This is good engineering since the screen on the picture tube
face will be burned if the electron beam is concentrated on it in a narrow line for even a few seconds.



Producer STEPHEN McCORMACK reveals what has gone on in making the London Town and About Britain programmes…!!!
FOR five years I have presented Richard Dimbleby in London Town and About Britain. We have gone together to dozens of widely different locations;
and I have never found him to be anything but the genial, accomplished professional that he appears on your screens. It has been a happy
partnership-but then, I have looked after him so well! For instance, I dressed him in a diving suit to go under the Thames, and I squeezed him down a manhole into the sewers below the streets of Clapham! I gave him a bus to drive on the “skid patch” at Chiswick, and had him race on a fire -engine round Piccadilly Circus. In the City we have been to the Stock Exchange and to Lloyd’s, to the great warehouses of the Port of London Authority, to the Whispering Gallery at St. Paul’s. Ever
solicitous, I have weighed him on the scales at an old wine shop in St. James’s. It was interesting to find from the records there that Richard was
heavier than the Aga Khan, and that Beau Brummel was a mere stripling by comparison. But don’t let me suggest that London Town has been merely the vehicle
for a lot of light-hearted adventures. We both have affection and respect for the history and traditions of our capital city. The underlying idea of all
our programmes has been to quicken in the Londoner-if he needed itsome new interest in the romance of his birthplace, and to show the rest of Britain some of the varied stories in the life of the world’s greatest city. As a documentary producer I had one major problem to overcome before we could launch such a series. I was determined to let some air blow through the programmes, and to get more action and excitement into the stories than could possibly be arranged in front of our studio cameras.The blending of film shots into studio sequences, a technique that we helped to pioneer, is now an accepted part of television; but when we
began to experiment there was very little experience to build upon.
It has been fun proving that we can have any exterior location we wish, filmed inadvance, and then add our studio reconstructions to complete the story.
I still receive letters from viewers saying “Will you please settle a family argument-my husband says that when Richard Dimbleby appeared to
be on the river he was really in the studios, but I insist that he was really in the boat.” The answer, of course, is that both the indignant wife and her
husband are right! My job as producer is to plan in advance with my scriptwriters-Peter Hunt and Stephen Hearst-the vital second when we
cut from film to the reconstruction of the same location in the studio. I would like to explain that we use this technique so that we may roam about at will and yet save time and money-two vitally important considerations. It was in January, 1952, that we extended our programmes to cover the
whole of Britain, and we have moved about using this technique as each new area was opened to viewers by the increasing chain of transmitters.
We have been able to range from the heart of England-in Warwickshire -to early spring in the Lake District, and to high summer in Scotland.
We have also visited North Wales and the Scilly Isles; taken the waters at
Bath; travelled down the south coast of Cornwall to Land’s End; and visited Edinburgh, as the capital of Scotland prepared for the Coronation
visit of Her Majesty the Queen.Sometimes the business of getting our heavy sound cameras to remote locations has led to a few complications.To travel to Rothesay, in the Isle of Bute, we had to use a tank -landing craft (provided by Lord Bute) to ferry our large truck over from Co1Mtraive
to Rudhabodach. I cherish the sight of an imperturbable BBC driver, sitting at the wheel as he drove on to the ferry. As the front wheels
ran down the ramp, the ferry sank, until the waters of the loch were lapping over his front wings. And then the ferry began to move away from
the shore! Some wild heaving on the tail end of the van followed, with wild Scottish cries mixing with our soft “southern” voices; but, suddenly,
the dead weight of the truck slid forward with a lurch, and we were triumphantly afloat.We had a problem getting the same van away from our locations when
“hound trailing” in the Lake District.Heavy rain during the end of our filming quickly converted the slopes of the hill farm into a morass. The rear wheels skidded
hopelessly, and we had to ask the farmer to lend to us,
to put under the wheels, some new wire mesh which he had ready to make a fence. Another farmer produced a tractor, and we inched our way
agonizingly slowly back on to the main road. When I got back to London there was a certain amount of correspondence concerning the ruined wire
mesh. I liked the memo I got from our Administrator: “Don’t get enmeshed in this business!” We once filmed a rescue scene on the top of Snowdon. I used two film
cameras shooting simultaneously to get good continuity, and also to save repeating the dizzy climb. We sent the film off to the labs in London, and
waited for the report. Back it came: “One camera giving some fine night sequences, but how are you going to join them together ?” The altitude
and cold had affected one camera. Sadly we assembled the rescue team and went up to the top again. When we went to the Isles of Scilly the only regular boat, The Scillonian, was short of the heavy lifting gear required to hoist the camera car on board, and we were helpless until the Trinity House vessel Satellite-on a
journey to Bishop’s Rock Lighthouse-came to our rescue. Down in Cornwall we had arranged to film the romantic St. Michael’s
Mount-the home of Lord and Lady St. Leven. The Mount is joined to the mainland by a narrow causeway over which one can walk at low tide;
but the tide comes in very fast. On the day in question we got the vehicles over safely; but Richard Dimbleby was late. I saw him arrive at the
mainland end of the causeway, and drive on to the sands. His car promptly sank up to its hub -caps! It was interesting to watch the pantomime that
followed. Realizing that the tide would not be high enough to get across by boat,Richard abandoned his car to some fishermen on the shore and began to
run across the causeway as the tide began to cover it. A cynical cameraman began to offer bets as to whether he would get across without a soaking,
and we stood and cheered on this bulky figure skipping agilely along the causeway. He got across in time, but for the last few yards every step was
accompanied by fountains of sea and foam.On my previous visit to the area I had been with Peter Hunt to Mevagissey, a lovely little fishing village. We were looking at the road that winds round the cliff, and at the colour -washed houses that hang over the harbour, when I noticed a fisherman joining us. I imagined that he was
going to offer us a trip round the bay, and prepared to answer him. He took his pipe out of his mouth, tipped his blue peaked cap on to the back
of his head, and said: “Are you gentlemen looking for your back -projection shots ?” This, from a local fisherman, startled us. But it turned out
that he had advised on a Clark Gable film that had been shot there, and he had been up to London to keep an eye on the studio reconstructions.

Last year we were allowed to board the Walmer Lifeboat to go out with a crew to the sinister wrecks on the Goodwin Sands. It was a glorious
day, with a stiff breeze and a good swell, and we looked forward to some fine action pictures. We neared the wrecks, and the coxswain turned the
lifeboat so that we could get close to the spars of the wrecks sticking out from the boiling seas. We were hanging on with excitement and getting
some lovely shots when, without warning, a huge wave came up and completely engulfed the boat! I can tell you that it is an odd feeling to find salt water running down inside one’s neck and pouring away over one’s shoes. As the wave cleared I looked to see if Ken Higgins, the cameraman, was still with us. He had
been hanging out over the side rather perilously. Yes, he was there all right. He wiped the water from his face, looked rather glumly at his saturated
camera and said, “Stephen, it’s not a film camera you need for this job-you should have asked for a flipping underwater television camera!”
My long association with Richard Dimbleby prompted him to ask for me to be with him in Westminster Abbey, when he learned that he was to
be given a “Number Two” for his Coronation commentary. My job was to keep a telephone line open to the producer, Peter Dimmock, and to
make sure that at every important change of camera angle Richard had the proper place in the official list of personages. I had also to be a general
dogsbody. It was the most exciting day in my television career.From our cubicle in the Triforium, high above the Altar, we could look
down on that most solemn and glittering scene. On our television monitors we could pre -view all the shots covered by our cameras in the Abbey, and
could see the excitement of the crowds as they roared a welcome to the Queen as she left Buckingham Palace. I know that we had the most complete
and exciting view of the whole wonderful ceremony, and I shall always be grateful to Richard for asking for me to share it. Some of my
friends, who know nothing of the skill and art of a Dimbleby commentary,assumed that being “Number Two” to Richard meant that I would take
over the commentary, if for any reason he could not continue. I was able to tell them that my instructions, if such an unfortunate event happened,
were very simple. I was to ring Peter Dimmock at once-so that he could plug in immediately to John Snagge’s commentary on sound radio!
I have only seen Dimbleby at a loss for words once. It happened during our first visit to Stratford-upon-Avon. We were filming an interview at the
Shakespeare Memorial Theatre with Sir Ralph Richardson, Mary Ellis and Anthony Quayle. This distinguished trio were filled with admiration
for Richard’s quick grasp of their explanation of the problems involved in their new season-then just about to open.
“We’re all actors,” said Sir Ralph, “and we can go on the stage to speak lines that we’ve learned, but the thought of this impromptu conversation in front of a camera is terrifying.” Richard replied, modestly enough, that after all he had had a lot of experience in this apparently
casual business and that he was sure they would soon feel at home. “O.K., camera-action!” called out John Rhodes, our film director, and
the interview began. But it did not continue for long, for Richard forgot his questions and “dried up” completely! The good-natured laughter that
followed put everyone at ease, and after that the filming was completed in record time.For our kind of programme we are eternally interested in people, seen
in their own surroundings as themselves. I believe that as new television stations open in the Commonwealth countries there will be a great opportunity
for us to exchange programmes; and I should like to think that some of our journeys across London Town or About Britain could be shared by British people wherever they may be.

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